"This recommendation is really important," said Jennifer Felder, assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of California at San Francisco, who was not part of the panel. In contrast to previous national guidelines, which involved screening or treatment, it consisted of "identifying women at risk of depression and proactively preventing their onset, with the help of concrete guidelines".

one or more of a wide range of risk factors, including personal or family history of depression; recent stress such as divorce or economic stress; traumatic experiences such as domestic violence; or depressive symptoms that do not constitute a complete diagnosis. Panel members also reported being a single mother, a teenager, low income, no high school diploma or having an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy.

Dr. Davidson said. They advise mothers for the first time and those who already have children, are available in Spanish and address low-income women, about 30% of whom develop perinatal depression, experts say.

A program entitled "Mothers and Babies". , "Includes cognitive-behavioral therapy in eight to 17 group sessions, often delivered in clinics or community health centers, primarily during pregnancy, with at least two postpartum sessions.

" is really about breaking down this idea your thoughts and behaviors are scary, "said Darius Tandon, associate professor at the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University and principal investigator of several" Mothers and Babies "studies.

To date, health and social service agencies in more than 175 counties and 21 states have been trained to implement the program. And it is being evaluated in Florida and the Midwest to see if it works well when it is administered individually by social workers instead of groups led by psychologists or social workers, said Dr. Tandon.

The other program, "Reach Out, Stay Strong, Essentials for New Moms" or ROSE, usually delivered in four pregnancy sessions and one postpartum, can be administered in a group or individually by nurses, midwives or anyone trained to follow the manual, said Jennifer Johnson, a professor of public health at Michigan State University.